Any object has three dimensions, viz., length, width and thickness. A projection is defined as a representation of an object on a two dimensional plane. The projections of an object should convey all the three dimensions, along with other details of the object on a sheet of paper. The elements to be considered while obtaining a projection are :

- The object
- The plane of projection
- The point of sight
- The rays of sight

A projection may be obtained by viewing the object from the point of sight and tracing in correct sequence, the points of intersection between the rays of sight and the plane on to which the object is projected. A projection is called orthographic projection when the point of sight is imagined to be located at infinity so that the rays of sight are parallel to each other and intersect the plane of projection at right angle to it.

The principles of orthographic projection may be followed in four different angles or systems, viz., first, second, third and fourth angle projections. A projection is said to be first, second, third or fourth angle when the object is imagined to be in the first, second, third or fourth quadrant respectively. However, the Bureau of Indian Standards (SP–46:1988) prefers first angle projection and throughout this book, first angle projection is followed.

**Principle of First Angle Projection**

In first angle projection, the object is imagined to be positioned in the first quadrant. The view from the front of the object is obtained by looking at the object from the right side of the quadrant and tracing in correct sequence, the points of intersection between the projection plane and the rays of sight extended. The object is between the observer and the plane of projection (vertical plane). Here, the object is imagined to be transparent and the projection lines are extended from various points of the object to intersect the projection plane. Hence, in first angle projection, any view is so placed that it represents the side of the object away from it.