Types of lathe machine
Various designs and constructions of lathe have been developed to suit different machining conditions and usage. The following are the different types of lathe:-
1. Speed lathe machine
- Woodworking lathe machine
- Centering lathe machine
- Polishing lathe machine
- Metal spinning lathe machine
2. Engine lathe machine
- Belt driven lathe machine
- Individual motor driven lathe machine
- Gear head lathe machine
3. Bench lathe machine
4. Tool room lathe machine
5. Semi automatic lathe machine
- Capstan lathe machine
- Turret lathe machine
6. Automatic lathe
Spindle of a speed lathe operates at very high speeds (approximately at a range of 1200 to 3600 rpm) and so it is named so. It consists of a headstock, a tailstock, a bed and a toolslide only. Parts like leadscrew, feed rod and apron are not found in this type of lathe.
- Centering lathes are used for drilling center
- The woodworking lathes are meant for working on wooden
- Metal spinning lathes are useful in making tumblers and vessels from sheet
- Polishing of vessels is carried out in polishing
Engine lathe or centre lathe
Engine lathes are named so because the early lathes were driven by steam engines. As the turning operations are performed by holding the workpiece between two centers, it is also known as centre lathe. Engine lathes are widely used in industries. It consists of parts like headstock, tailstock and carriage. Parts like leadscrew and feed rod which are useful in providing automatic feed are also found in this type of lathe.
Bench lathe is a small lathe generally mounted on a bench. It consists of all the parts of a engine lathe. It is used for small works like machining tiny and precise parts and parts of measuring instruments.
Tool room lathe
A tool room lathe has similar features of an engine lathe but is accurately built and has wide range of spindle speeds to perform precise operations and different feeds. It is costlier than a centre lathe. This is mainly used for precision works like manufacturing tools, dies, jigs, fixtures and gauges.
Semi automatic lathe
Turret and Capstan lathes are known as semi-automatic lathes. These lathes are used for production work where large quantities of identical workpieces are manufactured. They are called semi-automatic lathes as some of the tasks are performed by the operators and the rest by the machines themselves.
A semi skilled operator can do this at low cost and at shorter time. So, the cost of production is reduced. There are two tool posts in the machine namely four way tool post and rear tool post. Four tools can be mounted on the four way tool post and parting tool is mounted on the rear tool post. The tailstock of an engine lathe is replaced by a hexagonal turret. As many tools may be fitted on the six sides of the turret, different types of operations can be performed on a workpiece without resetting of tools.
Automatic lathes are operated with complete automatic control. They are high speed, mass production lathes. An operator can look after more than one automatic lathe at a time.