Drilling machines are manufactured in different types and sizes according to the type of operation, amount of feed, depth of cut, spindle speeds, method of spindle movement and the required accuracy.
The different types of drilling machines are:
- Portable drilling machine (or) Hand drilling machine
- Sensitive drilling machine (or) Bench drilling machine
- Upright drilling machine
- Radial drilling machine
- Gang drilling machine
- Multiple spindle drilling machine
- Deep hole drilling machine
Portable Drilling Machine
Portable drilling machine can be carried and used anywhere in the workshop. It is used for drilling holes on workpieces in any position, which is not possible in a standard drilling machine. The entire drilling mechanism is compact and small in size and so can be carried anywhere. This type of machine is widely adapted for automobile built-up work. The motor is generally universal type. These machines can accommodate drills from 12mm to 18 mm diameter. Portable drilling machines are operated at higher speeds.
Sensitive Drilling Machine
It is designed for drilling small holes at high speeds in light jobs. High speed and hand feed are necessary for drilling small holes. The base of the machine is mounted either on a bench or on the floor by means of bolts and nuts. It can handle drills upto 15.5mm of diameter. The drill is fed into the work purely by hand . The operator can sense the progress of the drill into the work because of hand feed. The machine is named so because of this reason. A sensitive drilling machine consists of a base, column, table, spindle, drillhead and the driving mechanism.
Base – The base is made of cast iron and so can withstand vibrations. It may be mounted on a bench or on the floor. It supports all the other parts of the machine on it.
Column – The column stands vertically on the base at one end. It supports the work table and the drill head. The drill head has drill spindle and the driving motor on either side of the column.
Table – The table is mounted on the vertical column and can be adjusted up and down on it. The table has ‘T’-slots on it for holding the workpieces or to hold any other work holding device. The table can be adjusted vertically to accommodate workpieces of different heights and can be clamped at the required position.
Drill head – Drillhead is mounted on the top side of the column. The drill spindle and the driving motor are connected by means of a V-belt and cone pulleys. The motion is transmitted to the spindle from the motor by the belt. The pinion attached to the handle meshes with the rack on the sleeve of the spindle for providing the drill the required downfeed. There is no power feed arrangement in this machine. The spindle rotates at a speed ranging from 50 to 2000 r.p.m.
Upright Drilling Machine
The upright drilling machine is designed for handling medium sized workpieces. Though it looks like a sensitive drilling machine, it is larger and heavier than a sensitive drilling machine. Holes of diameter upto 50mm can be made with this type of machine. Besides, it is supplied with power feed arrangement. For drilling different types of work, the machine is provided with a number of spindle speeds and feed.
There are two different types of upright drilling machines according to the cross-section of the column and they are
- Round column section upright drilling machine
- Box column section upright drilling machine
The main parts of a upright drilling machine are : base, column, table and drillhead.
Base – Base is made of cast iron as it can withstand vibrations set by the cutting action. It is erected on the floor of the shop by means of bolts and nuts. It is the supporting member as it supports column and other parts on it. The top of the base is accurately machined and has ‘T’-slots. When large workpieces are to be held, they are directly mounted on the base.
Column – Column stands vertically on the base and supports the work table and all driving mechanisms. It is designed to withstand the vibrations set up due to the cutting action at high speeds.
Table – Table is mounted on the column and can be adjusted up and down on it. It is provided with ‘T’-slots for workpieces to be mounted directly on it. Table may have the following adjustments
- Vertical adjustment obtained by the rack on the column and a pinion in the table
- Circular adjustment about its own axis
After the required ajustments are made, the table is clamped in position.
Drill head – The drillhead is mounted on the top of the column. It houses the driving and feeding mechanism of the spindle. The spindle can be provided with hand or power feed . There are separate hand wheels for quick hand feed and sensitive hand feed. The handle is spring loaded so that the drill spindle is released from the work when the operation is over.
Radial Drilling Machine
The radial drilling machine is intended for drilling on medium to large and heavy workpieces. It has a heavy round column mounted on a large base. The column supports a radial arm, which can be raised or lowered to enable the table to accommodate workpieces of different heights. The arm, which has the drilllhead on it, can be swung around to any position. The drill head can be made to slide on the radial arm. The machine is named so because of this reason. It consists of parts like base, column, radial arm, drillhead and driving mechanism.
Base – The base is a large rectangular casting and is mounted on the floor of the shop. Its top is accurately finished to support a column at one end and the table at the other end. ‘T’-slots are provided on it for clamping workpieces.
Column – The column is a cylindrical casting, which is mounted vertically at one end of the base. It supports the radial arm and allows it to slide up and down on its face. The vertical adjustment of the radial arm is effected by rotating a screw passing through a nut attached to the arm. An electric motor is mounted on the top of the column for rotating the elevating screw.
Radial arm – The radial arm is mounted on the column parallel to the base and can be adjusted vertically. The vertical front surface is accurately machined to provide guideways for the drillhead. The drillhead can be adjusted along these guideways according to the location of the work. In some machines, a separate motor is provided for this movement. The arm may be swung around the column. It can also be moved up and down to suit workpieces of different heights.
Drillhead – The drillhead is mounted on the radial arm and houses all mechanism for driving the drill at different speeds and at different feed. A motor is mounted on top of the drillhead for this purpose. To adjust the position of drill spindle with respect to the work, the drillhead may be made to slide on the guideways of the arm. The drillhead can be clamped in position after the spindle is properly adjusted.
Universal radial drilling machine – It is a machine in which the spindle can be swiveled to any required angle in vertical and horizontal positions.
Gang Drilling Machine
Gang drilling machine has a long common table and a base. Four to six drillheads are placed side by side. The drillheads have separate driving motors. This machine is used for production work.
A series of operations like drilling, reaming, counterboring and tapping may be performed on the work by simply shifting the work from one position to the other on the work table. Each spindle is set with different tools for different operations.
Multiple Spindle Drilling Machine
This machine is used for drilling a number of holes in a workpiece simultaneously and for reproducing the same pattern of holes in a number of identical pieces. A multiple spindle drilling machine also has several spindles. A single motor using a set of gears drives all the spindles. All the spindles holding the drills are fed into the work at the same time. The distances between the spindles can be altered according to the locations where holes are to be drilled. Drill jigs are used to guide the drills.
Deep Mole Drilling Machine
A special machine and drills are required to drill deeper holes in barrels of gun, spindles and connecting rods. The machine designed for this purpose is known as deep hole drilling machine. High cutting speeds and less feed are necessary to drill deep holes. A non- rotating drill is fed slowly into the rotating work at high speeds. Coolant should be used while drilling in this machine. There are two different types of deep hole drilling machines
- Vertical type
- Horizontal type