Surface grinding machines are employed to finish plain or flat surfaces horizontally, vertically or at any angle.
There are four different types of surface grinders. They are
- Horizontal spindle and reciprocating table type
- Horizontal spindle and rotary table type
- Vertical spindle and reciprocating table type
- Vertical spindle and rotary table type
Horizontal Spindle Surface Grinding Machine
The majority of surface grinders are of horizontal spindle type. In the horizontal type of the machine, grinding is performed by the abrasives on the periphery of the wheel. Though the area of contact between the wheel and the work is small, the speed is uniform over the grinding surface and the surface finish is good. The grinding wheel is mounted on a horizontal spindle and the table is reciprocated to perform grinding operation.
Base – The base is made of cast iron. It is a box like casting which houses all the table drive mechanisms. The column is mounted at the back of the base which has guideways for the vertical adjustment of the wheelhead.
Saddle – Saddle is mounted on the guideways provided on the top of the base. It can be moved at cross towards or away from the column.
Table – The table is fitted to the carefully machined guideways of the saddle. It reciprocates along the guideways to provide the longitudinal feed. The table is provided with ‘T’- slots for clamping workpieces directly on the table or for clamping grinding fixtures or magnetic chuck.
Wheelheead – An electric motor is fitted on the wheelhead to drive the grinding wheel. The wheelheed is mounted on the guideways of the column, which is secured to the base. It can be raised or lowered with the grinding wheel to accommodate workpieces of different heights and to set the wheel for depth of cut.
Vertical Spindle Surface Grinding Machine
The face or sides of the wheel are used for grinding in the vertical type surface grinders. The area of contact is large and stock can be removed quickly. But a criss-cross pattern of grinding scratches are left on the work surface. Considering the quality of surface finish obtained, the horizontal spindle type machines are widely used.
The grinding wheel is mounted on the vertical spindle of the machine. The work is held on the table and grinding is done.
The base of the machine is a box like casting. The base is very similar to the one of the horizontal spindle type. It houses all the table drive mechanisms.
The table is mounted on the base on top of which a magnetic chuck is mounted. A grinding wheel is mounted on the wheelhead which slides vertically on the column. The table is made to reciprocate or rotate to bring the work surface below the grinding wheel to perform grinding.