Main parts of a shaping machine are base, column, crossrail, table, ram and tool head. The details of these parts are mentioned below:-
The base is hollow and is made of cast iron. It provides the necessary support for all the other parts of the machine. It is rigidly bolted to the floor of the workshop.
It is a box like casting mounted vertically on top of the base. Two accurate guideways are machined on the top of the column. The ram reciprocates on these guideways. The front face of the column is provided with two vertical guideways. They act as guideways for the crossrail. Crossrail moves vertically along these guideways. The column encloses the ram reciprocating mechanism and the mechanism for strokelength adjustment.
It is mounted on the front vertical guideways of the column. The table may be raised or lowered by adjusting the crossrail vertically. A horizontal cross feed screw is fitted within the crossrail.
It is an impotant part useful in holding the work firmly on it. It is mounted on the saddle which is located above the crossrail. The top and sides of the table are accurately machined and have T-slots. Workpieces are held on the table with the help of shaper vise, clamps and straps.
Ram supports the toolhead on its front. It reciprocates on the accurately machined guideways on the top of the column. It is connected to the reciprocating mechanism placed inside the column. The position of ram reciprocation may be adjusted according to the location of the work on the table.
The toolhead is fitted on the face of the ram and holds the tool rigidly. It provides vertical and angular feed movement of the tool. The swivel toolhead can be positioned at any required angle and the vertical slide can be moved vertically or at any desired angle to machine verical or inclined surfaces.