Production is a process of converting raw material into finished products. The process of production is achieved by the collective efforts of man and machine using materials and tools. It requires information and energy to accomplish production by machining. Over the period of time, several techniques and methods are used in the process. The evolution of new methods of production saw the increasing involvement of machines in providing the information and energy required for production and the role played by the humans declined. Prepared programs consisting of informations and instructions took the role of controlling the machines instead of manual control. This has led to a manufacturing system of higher production at lower cost with more accuracy.
In NC System, intervention of human beings in the machining process is substituted by some operating instructions in a coded form. This coding otherwise known as part program is stored in cards or tapes. Getting the required instructions from these input media, the machine carries out different tasks in a proper sequence.
Numerical control can be defined as a system in which actions of a machine tool are controlled by recorded information in the form of numerical data.
Computer Numerical Control
When the activities of a Numerical Control machine is administered by a dedicated computer, it is known as Computer Numerical Control machine tool. The functions of the machine tool are controlled by the instructions stored as programs in the computer.