Machine Drawing

It is pertaining to machine parts or components. It is presented through a number of orthographic views, so that the size and shape of the component is fully understood. Part drawings and assembly drawings belong to this classification. An example of a machine drawing is given below.

Machine Drawing

Production Drawing

A production drawing, also referred to as working drawing, should furnish all the dimensions, limits and special finishing processes such as heat treatment, honing, lapping, surface finish, etc., to guide the craftsman on the shop floor in producing the component. The title should also mention the material used for the product, number of parts required for the assembled unit, etc.

Since a craftsman will ordinarily make one component at a time, it is advisable to prepare the production drawing of each component on a separate sheet. However, in some cases the drawings of related components may be given on the same sheet.

Production Drawing

Part Drawing

Component or part drawing is a detailed drawing of a component to facilitate its manufacture. All the principles of orthographic projection and the technique of graphic representation must be followed to communicate the details in a part drawing. A part drawing with production details is rightly called as a production drawing or working drawing.

Assembly Drawing

A drawing that shows the various parts of a machine in their correct working locations is an assembly drawing. There are several types of such drawings.

Assembly Drawing

  • Design Assembly Drawing – When a machine is designed, an assembly drawing or a design layout is first drawn to clearly visualize the performance, shape and clearances of various parts comprising the machine.
  • Detailed Assembly Drawing – It is usually made for simple machines, comprising of a relatively smaller number of simple parts. All the dimensions and information necessary for the construction of such parts and for the assembly of the parts are given directly on the assembly drawing. Separate views of specific parts in enlargements, showing the fitting of parts together, may also be drawn in addition to the regular assembly drawing.
  • Sub-assembly Drawing – Many assemblies such as an automobile, lathe, etc., are assembled with many pre-assembled components as well as individual parts. These pre-assembled units are known as sub-assemblies.
Position of the Object Relative to the Planes of Projection

A sub-assembly drawing is an assembly drawing of a group of related parts, that form a part in a more complicated machine. Examples of such drawings are: lathe tail-stock, diesel engine fuel pump, carburettor, etc.

  • Installation Assembly Drawing – On this drawing, the location and dimensions of few important parts and overall dimensions of the assembled unit are indicated. This drawing provides useful information for assembling the machine, as this drawing reveals all parts of a machine in their correct working position.
  • Assembly Drawings for Catalogues – Special assembly drawings are prepared for company catalogues. These drawings show only the pertinent details and dimensions that would interest the potential buyer. Figure below shows a typical catalogue drawing, showing the overall and principal dimensions.

Catalogue Drawing

  • Assembly Drawings for Instruction Manuals – These drawings in the form of assembly drawings, are to be used when a machine, shipped away in assembled condition, is knocked down in order to check all the parts before reassembly and installation elsewhere. These drawings have each component numbered on the job. Figure below shows a typical example of such a drawing.

Assembly Drawing for Instruction Manuals

 

  • Exploded Assembly Drawing – In some cases, exploded pictorial views are supplied to meet instruction manual requirements. These drawings generally find a place in the parts list section of a company instruction manual. Figure below shows drawings of this type which may be easily understood even by those with less experience in the reading of drawings; because in these exploded views, the parts are positioned in the sequence of assembly, but separated from each other.
Importance of Dimensioning in Machine Drawing

Exploded Assembly Drawing

  • Schematic Assembly Drawing – It is very difficult to understand the operating principles of complicated machinery, merely from the assembly drawings. Schematic representation of the unit facilitates easy understanding of its operating principle. It is a simplified illustration of the machine or of a system, replacing all the elements, by their respective conventional representations. Figure below shows the schematic representation of a gearing diagram.

Schematic Assembly Drawing

  • Machine Shop Drawing – Rough castings and forgings are sent to the machine shop for finishing operation. Since the machinist is not interested in the dimensions and information of the previous stages, a machine shop drawing frequently gives only the information necessary for machining. Based on the same principle, one may have forge shop drawing, pattern shop drawing, sheet metal drawing, etc.

Machine Shop Drawing

  • Patent Drawing – When new machines or devices are invented, patent drawings come into existence, to illustrate and explain the invention. These are pictorial drawings and must be self-explanatory. It is essential that the patent drawings are mechanically correct and include complete illustrations of every detail of the invention. However, they are not useful for production purposes. The salient features on the drawing are numbered for identification and complete description.

 

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