Wavelengths of light

Objective: To learn about the wavelengths of light produced by the sun and the electromagnetic spectrum. Standards: Objects in the Sky (sky object properties; why is the sun important?), Origin and Evolution of the Universe (how stars produce energy and the formation of all elements), Light, Heat, Electricity,...
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How air currents and wind relate to each other

Objective: To learn about air currents and wind and how they relate to each other. Standards: Structure of the Earth System (atmospheric composition and properties at different elevations; global circulation patterns and influence on local weather), Energy in the Earth System (heating of earth’s surface and atmosphere...
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How thunder happens in Earth’s atmosphere?

Objective: To simulate thunder and in doing so, learn why and how it happens in Earth’s atmosphere. Standards: Structure of the Earth System (atmospheric composition and properties at different elevations; clouds-formation and impact on weather and climate), Energy in the Earth System (heating of earth’s surface and atmosphere...
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What are the properties of warm air?

Objective: To demonstrate the properties of air when it is warmed. Standards: Structure of the Earth System (atmospheric composition and properties at different elevations), Energy in the Earth System (heating of Earth’s surface and atmosphere drives weather and ocean currents; convective circulation), Properties of Objects and Materials (object...
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Air pressure and its effects

Objective: To demonstrate air pressure and its effects and influences on surrounding materials. Standards: Structure of Earth System (atmospheric composition and properties at different elevations) and Structure and Properties of Matter (properties of solids, liquids, and gases). Materials: large index card, glass or cup, and water. Procedure: (1)...
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Difference between weathering and erosion

Objective: To illustrate the differences between weathering and erosion and to strengthen understanding of these concepts. Standards: Changes in Earth and Sky (slow erosion, weathering) and Properties of Earth Materials (physical and chemical properties of rocks and soils). Materials: Enough bite – sized Snickers candies for all...
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Concepts of exponential radioactive decay

Objective: To demonstrate the concepts of exponential radioactive decay and half life in a hands – on and graphical manner. Standards: Energy in the Earth System (internal sources of energy – radioactive decay) and Origin and Evolution of the Earth System (geologic dating methods). Materials: One hundred...
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Processes of mid ocean ridge formation

Objective: To demonstrate the processes of mid ocean ridge formation. Standards: Structure of the Earth System (plate tectonics and its relation to volcanoes, mountain building, and earthquakes) and Energy in the Earth System (convective circulation in the mantle that propels plate tectonics). Materials: Two graham crackers and...
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Forces that cause earthquakes

Objective: To demonstrate the forces that cause earthquakes, the tension that can build up at earthquake faults, and the ensuing debris produced at a fault. Standards: Structure of the Earth System (plate tectonics and its relation to earthquakes) and Transfer of Energy (energy types, characteristics, and transfer...
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Fractures in earth’s crust

Objective: To learn how fractures in earth’s crust develop by pulling on the edges of a slice of cheese. Standards: Structure of the Earth System (plate tectonics and its relation to volcanoes, mountain building, and earthquakes). Materials: Pre-sliced pieces of American cheese Procedure: (1) Make a small...
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Earthquakes are tot your fault

Objective: To demonstrate a dip – slip and strike – slip fault movement. Standards: Structure of the Earth System (plate tectonics and its relation to volcanoes, mountain building, and earthquakes). Materials: three similarly sized hardcover books Procedure: (1) Hold the three books firmly together with the...
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Properties of soil

Objective: To learn about properties of soils and how their contents relate to the principle of density and sedimentation. Standards: Properties of Earth Materials (physical and chemical properties of rocks and soils; soil properties), Structure of the Earth System (layering and properties of earth’s internal structure; soil properties:...
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Physical properties of porous rock

Objective: To learn about the physical properties of porous rock types. Standards: Properties of Earth Materials (physical and chemical properties of rocks and soils). Materials: Various porous rocks, a shallow baking pan or plugged sink, and water. Procedure: (1) Place the porous rocks in the baking...
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Chemical properties of rocks

Objective: To quickly be able to test rock specimens and identify them and to also learn about the chemical properties of rocks. Standards: Properties of Earth Materials (physical and chemical properties of rocks). Materials: small sampling of various rocks including limestone or marble and two ounces (60...
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Law of Superposition and its importance in science

Objective: To teach the scientific principle of the Law of Superposition and its importance in science. Standards: Properties of Earth Materials (fossil properties; historical significance), Earth’s History (uniformitarianism and catastrophism; fossils show how life and environmental conditions have changed), Origin and Evolution of the Earth System (geologic dating methods),...
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How properties of seismic waves leads to composition of earth’s interior?

Objective: To demonstrate how understanding the properties of seismic waves leads to understanding the composition of earth’s interior. Standards: Properties of Earth Materials (physical and chemical properties of rocks and soils, water, and gas), Structure of Earth System (layering and properties of Earth’s internal structure; plate tectonics and...
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Waves produced by earthquakes

Objective: To introduce the topic of seismic waves produced by earthquakes. Standards: Structure of the Earth System (plate tectonics and its relation to earthquakes), Transfer of Energy (energy types, characteristics, and transfer properties), and Interaction of Energy and Matter (waves have energy and can transfer energy when...
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