Electric Discharge Machine PowerPoint Presentation

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SLIDE-1

ELECTRIC DISCHARGE MACHINE

SLIDE-2

  • INTRODUCTION
    • HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT
    • CLASSIFICATION OF MODERN MACHINING PROCESS
    • PROCESS
  • LECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINE (EDM)
    • CONSTRUCTION
  • TYPES OF EDM
    • SINKER EDM
    • WIRE EDM
  • ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

SLIDE-3

INTRODUCTION

  • DIFICULTIES FACED FOR MACHINING HARD AND HEAT RESISTING MATERIALS
  • TOOL HARDNESS
  • METAL REMOVAL TAKES PLACE DUE TO SHEARING ACTION
  • IN NON-CONVENTIONAL MACHINING (NCM) PROCESS TOOL NEED NOT BE HARDER THAN THE WORK-PIECE
  • HARDNESS OF WORK-PIECE IS NOT A PROBLEM
  • WORK-PIECE NEED NOT BE SUBJECTED TO UNDERGO ANY STRESS

SLIDE-4

HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT

  • MANUFACTURERS FELT THE NEED FOR DEVELOPMENT OF NEW CONCEPTS IN METAL MACHINING IN 1960’S
  • AS A RESULT NCM PROCESSES HAVE EMERGED
  • CONVENTIONAL TOOLS WERE NOT NEEDED
  • INSTEAD UTILIZES SOME FORM OF ENERGY FOR METAL MACHINING

SLIDE-5

CLASSIFICATION OF MODERN MACHINING PROCESS

TYPE OF ENERGY MECHANISM OF METAL REMOVAL PROCESSES
MECHANICAL EROSION AJM, USM, WJM
ELECTRICAL ANODE DISSOLUTION ECM, ECG
CHEMICAL EROSION CHM
THERMAL FUSION IBM, PAM
EDM
VAPORIZATION LBM
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SLIDE-6

PROCESS

  • CONTROLLED EROSION
  • SPARK GAP FLOODED OR IMMERSED UNDER THE DIELECTRIC FLUID
  • SPARK DISCHARGE IS PRODUCED BY THE CONTROLLED PULSING OF DIRECT CURRENT
  • DIELECTRIC FLUID IN THE SPARK GAP IS IONIZED USING DIRECT CURRENT
  • A SPARK DISCHARGE PASSES BETWEEN THE TOOL AND THE WORK PIECE

SLIDE-7

ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINE (EDM)

  • EACH SPARK PRODUCES ENOUGH HEAT TO MELT AND VAPORIZE A TINY VOLUME
  • LEAVING A SMALL CRATER
  • ENERGY CONTAINED IN EACH SPARK IS DISCRETE
  • IT CAN BE CONTROLLED
  • MATERIAL REMOVAL RATE, SURFACE FINISH AND TOLERANCE CAN BE PREDICTED

SLIDE-8

CONSTRUCTION

  • MACHINES ARE OF VERTICAL ‘C’ TYPE
  • COLUMN IS FIXED TO THE BASE AND SUPPORTS THE HEAD
  • A CO-ORDINATE TABLE MOUNTED ON THE BASE

SLIDE-9

SINKER EDM

  • SINKER EDM, ALSO KNOWN AS CAVITY EDM OR VOLUME EDM
  • CONSISTS OF AN ELECTRODE AND WORKPIECE SUBMERGED IN AN INSULATING LIQUID SUCH AS, OIL OR OTHER DIELECTRIC FLUIDS
  • THE ELECTRODE AND WORKPIECE ARE CONNECTED TO A SUITABLE POWER SUPPLY
  • THE POWER SUPPLY GENERATES AN ELECTRICAL POTENTIAL BETWEEN THE TWO PARTS
  • AS THE ELECTRODE APPROACHES THE WORKPIECE, DIELECTRIC BREAKDOWN OCCURS IN THE FLUID, FORMING A PLASMA CHANNEL, AND A SMALL SPARK JUMPS
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SLIDE-10

WIRE EDM

  • WIRE EDM, ALSO KNOWN AS WIRE-CUT EDM AND WIRE CUTTING EDM
  • A THIN SINGLE-STRAND METAL WIRE, USUALLY BRASS, IS FED THROUGH THE WORKPIECE, SUBMERGED IN A TANK OF DIELECTRIC FLUID, TYPICALLY DEIONIZED WATER
  • WIRE-CUT EDM IS TYPICALLY USED TO CUT PLATES AS THICK AS 300MM AND TO MAKE PUNCHES, TOOLS, AND DIES FROM HARD METALS THAT ARE DIFFICULT TO MACHINE WITH OTHER METHODS
  • THE WIRE, WHICH IS CONSTANTLY FED FROM A SPOOL, IS HELD BETWEEN UPPER AND LOWER DIAMOND GUIDES
  • THE GUIDES, USUALLY CNC-CONTROLLED, MOVE IN THE X–Y PLANE

SLIDE-11

ADVANTAGES

  • COMPLEX SHAPES THAT WOULD OTHERWISE BE DIFFICULT TO PRODUCE WITH CONVENTIONAL CUTTING TOOLS
  • EXTREMELY HARD MATERIAL TO VERY CLOSE TOLERANCES
  • VERY SMALL WORK PIECES WHERE CONVENTIONAL CUTTING TOOLS MAY DAMAGE THE PART FROM EXCESS CUTTING TOOL PRESSURE
  • THERE IS NO DIRECT CONTACT BETWEEN TOOL AND WORK PIECE. THEREFORE DELICATE SECTIONS AND WEAK MATERIALS CAN BE MACHINED WITHOUT ANY DISTORTION
  • A GOOD SURFACE FINISH CAN BE OBTAINED
  • VERY FINE HOLES CAN BE DRILLED
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SLIDE-12

DISADVANTAGES

  • THE SLOW RATE OF MATERIAL REMOVAL
  • POTENTIAL FIRE HAZARD ASSOCIATED WITH USE OF COMBUSTIBLE OIL BASED DIELECTRICS
  • THE ADDITIONAL TIME AND COST USED FOR CREATING ELECTRODES FOR RAM/SINKER EDM
  • REPRODUCING SHARP CORNERS ON THE WORKPIECE IS DIFFICULT DUE TO ELECTRODE WEAR
  • SPECIFIC POWER CONSUMPTION IS VERY HIGH
  • “OVERCUT” IS FORMED
  • EXCESSIVE TOOL WEAR OCCURS DURING MACHINING
  • ELECTRICALLY NON-CONDUCTIVE MATERIALS CAN BE MACHINED ONLY WITH SPECIFIC SET-UP OF THE PROCESS

SLIDE-13

THANK YOU

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