The distance an object travels in a particular period of time is known as speed. In a shaper, the cutting speed is the speed at which the metal is removed by the cutting tool in a period of one minute. In a shaper, the cutting speed is considered only during the forward cutting stroke. This is expressed in metre per minute.
The cutting speed differs to suit different different machining conditions like work material, the finish required, the type of the tool and the rigidity of the machine.
Depth of Cut
Depth of cut (t) is the thickness of metal that is removed during machining. It is the perpendicular distance measured between the machined surface and the uncut surface of the workpiece. It is expressed in mm or in inches.
Feed (S) is the relative movement of the work or tool in a direction perpendicular to the axis of reciprocation of the ram per double stroke. It is expressed in mm per stroke.
Due to the friction between the tool and the work surface during machining, heat is generated. The tool loses its cutting capacity and the machined surface is hardened. Coolant is used on the surfaces to avoid damage to the cutting edge of the tool as well as to the machined surface.
Soluble oil is mixed with water to be used as a suitable coolant. One part of the oil is mixed with fifteen parts of water to be used as coolant. Usage of water as coolant may result in rust formation on the metal parts. Lubricants cannot be used as coolants.